These Runes affect the way you do damage, and are unrelated toyour health. They are:
Strength Rune: While you have this "Rune", you do 2x Damage.
Pestilence Rune: Everything around you takes some damage
These Runes affect your Health/Resistence to Damage. They are:
Regen Rune: Your health slowly regenerates up to 150%.
Resist Rune: You take only half damage.
These Runes affect both your Offensive and Defensive abilities, or neither. They include:
Vampire Rune: Whenever you hit some one, you get 50% of the damage you dealt added to your health.
Barb Rune: Whenever you hit some one who has this rune, you will take 50% of the damage you dealt. Becareful of using a strength rune/damage amplifier/fully loaded eightball on someone with this rune, as you will instantly kill yourself.